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目前日期文章:201101 (13)

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薩德侯爵

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唐納蒂安·阿爾豐斯·弗朗索瓦·德·薩德,薩德侯爵Donatien Alphonse François Sade, Marquis de Sade1740年6月2日出生於巴黎1814年12月2日逝世於巴黎附近)是一位法國貴族和一系列色情哲學書籍的作者。他尤其由於他所描寫的色情幻想和他所導致的社會醜聞而出名。以他命名的薩德主義是性虐待的另一個稱呼。

目錄

[隱藏]

[編輯] 生平

薩德出生於一個古老的、敗落的法國南部貴族家庭。他的母親是法國王室的波旁王朝的一個遠親,曾經當過孔代親王妃的高級女侍,他本人即出生於孔代親王在巴黎的宮殿里。在這裡他度過了幼年。他的童年部分在巴黎,部分在普羅旺斯度過。10歲到14歲他在巴黎的路易大帝學校(Collège Louis-le-Grand)上學,此後他進入了一個只有高級貴族才進得去的軍官學校。15歲時他成為候補軍官。16歲時他參加了七年戰爭並多次被提升。

為了改進他的經濟狀況,薩德侯爵於1763年與瑞內·佩拉吉·德·孟特瑞爾(Renée Pélagie de Montreuil)結婚,孟特瑞爾出生於一個不十分高貴,但非常富有的貴族家庭。兩人可能有三個孩子。1764年薩德的父親死後,他繼承了他父親的與瑞士交界的三個省的榮譽總督的職務。

薩德婚後所獲得的財富使得他可以開始他醜聞昭著的生活。他的生活遠遠跳出了當時法國貴族的放蕩主義所容許的範圍。據聞他多次虐待非常年輕的妓女和他家裡的男女佣人,後來與他的妻子一起虐待家裡的傭人。

由於有一個叫羅希·凱勒(Rose Keller)的人控告說薩德鞭打了她,薩德被捕。但薩德向凱勒付了一筆錢後,凱勒撤回了她的控訴。

1769年薩德寫了一本去荷蘭的遊記。

1772年馬賽的妓女控告說薩德用糖里摻的麻醉藥品迷倒她們後強迫她們進行群交和雞姦。薩德被告,並被缺席判處死刑。薩德逃往義大利。他在那裡又寫了一本遊記(1775年印刷)和一本關於羅馬佛羅倫斯那不勒斯的書(1776年印刷)。

薩德在出逃時又拐騙了他的一個做修女的妯娌,這樣一來他的妻子家裡也與他斷裂了。他的丈母娘獲得了一個國王通緝令(lettre de cachet)。1777年薩德返回巴黎時因此被捕並被關押,但他被判處的死刑卻於1778年被取消了。

1784年薩德越獄未遂後被關押到巴斯第監獄,他在這裡被關押了五年半。這段時間裡是薩德寫作上最有成就的時間。他在巴斯第監獄內可以隨便借書、買書和讀書。由於他的作品從哲學和習俗上都非常與世俗格格不入,因此他多偷偷地寫。為了節約紙張不被別人發現,他寫的字非常小。

1789年巴斯第監獄被攻前數日,薩德向外面示威的人叫:「他們在這裡面殺被關的人!」可能他的這些叫喊導致了巴黎公眾攻佔巴斯第監獄。巴斯第監獄本來是一個關貴人的監獄,薩德在裡面讓外面給他送飯,他的房間里的傢具都是他自己布置的。

巴斯第監獄被攻破後薩德立刻被轉移到一個瘋人院,他的妻子藉機與他離婚。

1790年薩德在法國大革命中被釋放。雖然他是貴族出身他參加了極端的雅各賓派,宣揚烏托邦的社會主義理想,但他拒絕交出他的家庭在普羅旺斯的宮殿和家庭財產。1793年他逐漸脫離了當時的政治主流,再次被捕並被判死刑。這次薩德被關押了一年多,但1794年7月28日羅伯斯庇爾被推翻後他逃脫了斷頭台。三個月後他被釋放。此後薩德窮途潦倒,不得不出賣他的家庭佔有,干雜活,他寫的作品賣不出多少錢。

1801年拿破崙上台後薩德因為寫了《於斯丁娜》和《於麗埃特》未經審判被關押。1803年他 被稱瘋狂再次被關入瘋人院。在那裡人們對他不錯。他可以寫任何他想寫的東西。他在這裡寫了他的自傳式小說《香閣侯爵》(La Marquise de Gange,1813年印刷)、《薩克森王妃布倫瑞克的阿德萊德》(Adélaïde de Brunswick, princesse de Saxe,1812年印刷)和《巴伐利亞的伊莎貝拉秘史》(Histoire secrète d'Isabelle de Bavière,1813年印刷)。他還組織瘋人院里的瘋人演了好幾齣戲。1814年薩德侯爵逝於瘋人院內,享年74歲。

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TOEIC tests  level 11 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 11

Advertising

Q1 In order to make a sensible ....... among the different vacuum cleaners available, it is important to do some research.

(a)    comparing (b) comparison (c) compares (d) comparative

 

 

Q2 The local department store has to make a sustained effort 努力(singular 不可數); 嘗試,果(plural 可數)at this time of the year to ....... customer demand for

summer clothing.

(a)    satisfy (b) satisfaction (c) satisfies (d) satisfying

 

 

Q3 A good team leader must be able to ....... his colleagues / colleague / collage / college / to face the challenge of a downturn in business.

(a)    inspiring (b) inspiration (c) inspires (d) inspire

 

 

Q4 The ....... trend / fad / fashion / trend / in children's desire to wear designer label clothes should be exploited.

(a)    currant (b) current (c) occuring (d) occurred

 

 

Q5 You have to ....... the public that it is in their own interest to read the instructions on all our medicines.

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TOEIC tests level 10 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 10

Accounts

Q1 In order to check all the telephone calls made during the month I want the account to be ........

(a)    detailed (b) particular (c) specialized (d) itemized

 

detailed

W2 adj
1. containing or including a lot of information or details: detailed description/account/analysis etc
a detailed study of crime in Seattle
More detailed information is available on request.
2. having a lot of decorations or small features that are difficult to produce:
a beautifully detailed carving

 

detail


detail 2 v [T]
1. to list things or give all the facts or information about something:
The report details the progress we have made over the last year.
2. detail sb to (do) sth: to officially order someone, especially soldiers, to do a particular job
Four soldiers were detailed to guard duty.

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TOEIC tests level 1 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 1

Bearing Information

Q1 Try and be a little more cheerful because if you don't bear ....... soon, you'll make everyone else miserable.

(a) bear through (b) bear along (c) bear up (d) bear to

Q2 We were in a small rowing boat and were terrified that the steamer hadn't seen us as it was bearing ....... on us.

bear down

move forward in a threatening manner (e.g., "The cruise ship bore down on our canoe"); use utmost effort and concentration (e.g., "If you really bear down, you will success"); contract the muscles of the abdomen during childbirth in order to facilitate the delivery

 

(a) bear down (b) bear across (c) bear over (d) bear under

Q3 I fully understand your comments and bearing those in ......., I have made the appropriate decision.

(a) bear in brain (b) bear in mind (c) bear in thought (d) bear in sense

Q4 As we have all worked very hard this year, I'm hoping that our efforts will bear ........

(a) bear produce (b) bear benefits (c) bear yields (d) bear fruit

Q5 We all have our ....... to bear so I should be grateful if you would stop complaining all the time.

Cross to bear

    If someone has a cross to bear, they have a heavy burden of responsibility or a problem that they alone must cope with.

(a) problems (b) situations (c) crosses (d) results

Q6 There is really nothing much you can do to stop it and I'm afraid you'll just have to ....... and bear it.

(a)    scorn (b) grin (c) laugh (d) smile

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TOEIC tests level 7/ Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 7

Speaking: At the Theatre

 

Q1 Ladies and gentlemen, I want to thank you for your ....... of our performance.

(a)    appearance (b) appreciation (c) appeasement (d) apparition

appearance / character / outlook

nature / trait / characteristic / disposition /

 

Q2 We have done this play many times in different towns but your ....... has been the greatest so far.

(a)    appointment (b) application (c) apposition (d) applause

 

 

Q3 We will always remember the way you stood up and ....... at some of the speeches in the play.

(a)    clapped (b) clopped (c) clipped (d) clammed

stood up/  to defend someone or something: "You need to stand up for your rights!"

get on to

get on to

 make contact with someone: "Can you get on to the suppliers and chase up our order?"

get on

 

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TOEIC tests level 6 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 6

Speaking: At the Supermarket

Q1 Will the driver of the blue Ford Fiesta XYZ 343 please ....... their car.

(a)    send their car (b) move their car (c) take their car (d) tow their car

 

 

Q2 The reason for this is that the Fiesta is ....... our delivery lorry from leaving the premises / premise / promise / arena / amphitheater .

(a)    holding from (b) keeping from (c) preventing from (d) promoting from

keep from (or keep someone from)

avoid (or cause someone to avoid) doing something.

keep from

not tell "We kept our relationship from our parents for two years."

keep from

prevent, refrain from I love ice cream and couldn`t keep from eating three bowls.

 

prevent

v. cause not to happen, avert; delay, impede, hinder

prevent

  verb
    keep from happening or arising.
make unable to do something.

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TOEIC tests level 4 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 4

Mistaken Identity

Q1 Interviewer: Perhaps you could start by telling us why you've ........

(a) obtained for this job

(c) intended for this job

(b) applied for this job

(d) asked for this job

 

Q2 Candidate: I think the main reason is because I like working in ........

(a)    the free air (b) the clear air (c) the pure air (d) the open air

open-air

held outside, outdoor

 

 

Q3 Interviewer: You mean you like the idea of an office with ........

(a)    air control (b) air management (c) air conditioning (d) air condition

 

 

Q4 Candidate: I'm sorry I don't understand what you're ........

(a)    in about (b) on about (c) for about (d) off about

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NTU researchers develop 12-minute cancer test (2011/01/18)

National Taiwan University has unveiled a test for cancer that uses an IC chip to produce results in just 12 minutes. In clinical trials, researchers showed the accuracy of the test can reach as high as 100 percent for various forms of cancer as well as enterovirus and other diseases.

These samples which have been collected to test for cancer typically require three days to one week for test results to emerge. But now
National Taiwan University has produced this Vsensor that yields results in just 12 minutes.

Lin Shi-ming
NTU Optoelectronic Biomedicine
This whole sample is taken and passed over this IC chip and in just 12 minutes a direct test is performed for enterovirus. Most tests require a viral culture or genetic testing, which can take three to five days. This means that a test for a child can cause them to miss out on medical care.

National Taiwan University is digitizing the examination of diseases and viruses, not only reducing examination time for enterovirus and cervical, liver and lung cancer, but also other diseases such as influenza and sepsis.

Lin Shi-ming
NTU Optoelectronic Biomedicine
The accuracy can reach 100 percent when testing enterovirus 71 and cervical cancer.

The invention by
National Taiwan University has already passed human trials. In the future, there’s hope that a laptop and a cell phone can be used for convenient testing for the benefit of everyone around the world.

 

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TOEIC tests level 3/ Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 3

Cliches

Q1 She's got the kind of job that seems to keep her occupied all the time — 24-........

(a)    24-4 (b) 24-5 (c) 24-6 (d) 24-7

24-7

(also 24/7)
  adverb informal twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week; all the time.

 

Q2 ......., I couldn't agree with you more.

(a)    Totally (b) Clearly (c) Finally (d) Absolutely

 

Q2 ......., I couldn't agree with you more.

如題~~~

能否請各位替我造個例句?

假如我說
I was ____ not talking about you.
(我完完全全不是在說你)
那麼該填哪個好呢?

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TOEIC tests level  2 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 2

Cinemas

Q1 Her latest film ....... its object / goal in a very short space of time, which was to shock.

(a)    Acquired努力獲得 (b) got 弄到(c) attained 達到(d) controlled

 

space of time 【化】 时间间隔

4 . acquireattain , gain , get , obtain , pick up

本組詞都有“獲得、得到”的意思,但還是有意思上的細微差別。 acquire 表示通過努力或經過積累而“獲得”的財富、經驗、能力、榮譽、才智等,強調所得物量的增多,可後接表示抽象或具體事物的名詞attain 正式用詞,多用於莊重的場合,意為“達到、獲 得”,著重指雄心勃勃地設定目標並有意識地實現這一不尋常的目標或達到某一階段,一般後面接表示抽象事物的名詞,如 ambition , goal , objective , success , victory 等; gain 正式用詞,指通過相當的努力或拼搏(往往是通過勞動、鬥爭、競爭)得到利益或有價值的東西,強調所得物造成的優勢; get 口語用詞,含義豐富,指通過某種方法或手段擁有某種東西,即可以經過積極努力而“獲得、弄到”,又可以被動地“得到”,可後接雙賓語; obtain 正式用語(比 get 更正式),多指憑努力或懇求“得到”急需的很想得到的東西強調願望得以實現,可後接雙賓語; pick up 指偶然地、無意地、容易地“學會”知識、技能或“獲得”資訊, up 為副詞,代詞性賓語應置於 pick 和 up 之間。

He acquired a knowledge of the language by careful study .他通過認真學習,掌握了這種語言。

努力或經過積累而“獲得”的財富、經驗、能力、榮譽、才智等,強調所得物量的增多

He attained the position of minister .他當上了部長。

attain 正式用詞,多用於莊重的場合,意為“達到、獲 得”,著重指雄心勃勃地設定目標並有意識地實現這一不尋常的目標或達到某一階段

She gained a lot of experience working abroad .她在國外工作取得了很多經驗。

指通過相當的努力或拼搏(往往是通過勞動、鬥爭、競爭)得到利益或有價值的東西,強調所得物造成的優勢

I got a ticket for the concert .我弄到了一張音樂會的票。

指通過某種方法或手段擁有某種東西,即可以經過積極努力而“獲得、弄到”,又可以被動地“得到”

She obtained her degree in 1990. 她是 1990 年獲得學位的。

obtain 正式用語(比 get 更正式),多指憑努力或懇求“得到”急需的很想得到的東西強調願望得以實現

The children have picked up the local accent .孩子們已經學會了當地口音。

pick up 指偶然地、無意地、容易地“學會”知識、技能或“獲得”資訊

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TOEIC tests level 9 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 9

What comes next (the bill)

 

Q1 This is most embarrassing. I can't pay the bill for my meal. I'm afraid ........

(a) I've forgotten my wallet at home

(c) I've abandoned / abundant /  my wallet at home

(b) I've left my wallet at home

(d) I've quit my wallet at home

 

Q2 I would be most obliged if you ........

(a) let me to pay later

(c) allow me to pay later

(b) permit me / to / of / ving pay later

(d) grant me to / that / from pay later

 

Q3 The other thing I could do is ........

(a) leave my watch as a present

(c) leave my watch as a gift

(b) leave my watch as a token

(d) leave my watch as a deposit

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TOEIC tests level # 5 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 5

Speaking: At the Station

 

Q1 The train now ....... at the platform 6 is the 10.45 for London.

(a)    Sitting at the platform (b) standing at the platform (c) waiting at the platform (d) remaining at the platform

[sing] stationary condition; halt or standstill 停止的状态; 中止; 停顿: come to a stand 停下来.

[I] (of a vehicle, etc) remain in the same place (指车辆等)停着: a train standing in the station 停在车站里的火车 * The car stood at the traffic lights for a few moments, then moved off. 那辆汽车在交通灯前停了一会儿, 然后驶去了.

 

 

Q2 Unfortunately it is now 11 o'clock and so there is a ....... of 15 minutes already.

(a)    waiting (b) lateness (c) space (d) delay

lateness

n. quality of being late, tardiness

 

 

 

Q3 The train at platform 14 cannot leave because there is a power ....... on that particular line...

(a)    power failure (b) power miss (c) power ailing (d) power missing

 

 

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TOEIC tests evel 8 / Incomplete Sentences / Advanced level # 8

Speaking: The Broadcast

 

Q1 Welcome to Radio News and now over to our ....... who's covering the procession this morning.

(a)    reviewer (b) reporter (c) announcer (d) introducer

cover

v. encase; review; conceal completely underneath; protect; include; insure

procession

n. succession of people (or cars, etc.); forward movement of a succession

procession

n
1. [U and C] a line of people or vehicles moving slowly as part of a ceremony:
> parade
funeral/wedding/carnival etc procession
They marched in procession to the Capitol / capital  building.
2. [C] several people or things of the same type, appearing or happening one after the other: procession of
an endless procession of visitors

 

announcer

n [C]

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