Sent from my Android device with Email Mail. Please excuse my brevity.
Jason教英文大口訣：姐懶趴短：give up 和give up on的差別
To give up on = to abandon; to cease to consider.
To give up = to quit (a habit or habitual practice); to surrender.
口訣： give up : give up on / 戒除讓步：拋棄斷念(姐懶趴短) XD
if it has a preposition, the meaning changes, you're absolutely right.
I give up (on myself) means I'm spent, I've had enough.
I give up myself means you're giving yourself to someone, as in submission.
I suppose the meaning changes, in regards to people, because if you give someone, you're handing them over so to speak. In my eyes, I see handing over someone to the police if it's "I gave up Bobby".
I'm really interested to hear what others say.
I think you're rightwhen talking about people. I think give up on myself or give up on someone else means to lose faith in or no longer rely on that person, and give up myself means to surrender to someone.
I think it's different when not talking about people though. I think 'give up on' implies that it is a decision made in exasperation. That you have been trying something, but it hasn't worked so now you're not going to bother anymore. 'Give up' implies more of a sacrifice or an effort, for example to give up smoking or chocolate. To give up you make an effort to stop doing something, whereas to give up on you no longer feel what you were doing is worth the effort you have put in. I don't think you'd really say 'I'm going to give up on chocolate' unless you were saying "I'm going to stop trying to use chocolate to make me feel better when I'm down, it doesn't work".!
Were it not for
Had it not been for
都等於 If not for 或是 if it were not for.....
But for the defendant's act, would the result have happened?
"But for" 的意思是什麼呢？
"But for" 其實相當於 "if it were not for" 或 "if it had not been for"。中文可以翻譯作「如果不是....的話」。
還記得 conditional sentences type 2 和 type 3 嗎？
簡單來說，conditional sentences type 2 的 pattern 是：
If + past tense, would/should/could + verb.
而 conditional sentences type 3 的 pattern 則是：
If + past perfect tense, perfect conditional.
「But for 句子」其實是 conditional sentences 的一種。有些時候它可以取代 type 2 和 type 3 句子。
If it weren't for the rain, I would go shopping. (Type 2)
Were it not for the rain, I would go shopping. (Type 2)
這時我們可以用 "but for" 去取代 "if it weren't for" 或 "were it not for"：