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代名詞(24)--關係代名詞:what, where, when, why

分類:代名詞

關係代名詞what, where, when, why = 先行詞+ which 

 

關係代名詞: 

    

理由

先行詞+ which

what

when

    where

why

 

【觀念確認】關係代名詞 which 可合併先行詞其所修飾的先行詞而變化,而構成完整的名詞子句,成為主要子句的一部分,從另一方面來說關係子句本身已轉變成為間接問句。

 

What    = the thing which    Where  = the place which

When   = the time which     Why    = the reason which

 Ps:

Can you tell me ________ you are going to?

Can you tell me the place to ________you are going?

            I believe the thing which he said.---------------------我相信他所說的事(的話)

            I believe what he said.

 

This is the museum which I last visited.-------這是我上次來過的博物館(地方)

This is where I last visited.

 

            I don’t know the time which he’ll come.-----------我不知他到達的時間(何時)

            I don’t know when he’ll come.

 

            That’s the reason which I came here for.----------那就是我來此的理由(為何)

            That’s why I came here.

 

              ( for附屬於the reason,所以隨著 the reason消失而消失)

 

 關係代名詞who合併先行詞“人”之後,仍然為who,仔細觀察,關係子句本身已轉變成為間接問句矣。

           You are the one who I am looking for.--------------------你就是我正要找的人

           You are who I am looking for.

 

           The man who you are talking about is my father.----------你說的那人正是家父

      Who you are talking about is my father.

 

 故另有一說關係副詞前的先行詞可省略,其間變化即源於此,繼續詳閱以下關係副詞,俾使融會貫通,切勿死記規則。

 

 

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代名詞(25)--關係副詞:what, where, when, why,兼論準關代 as , but

分類:代名詞

2011/02/27 14:26

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關係副詞what, where, when, why = 介繫詞+ which

 

關係副詞:

    

理由

介繫詞+ which

what

when

    where

why

 

              【觀念確認】關係子句中若含介詞,介詞可以前調至關係代名詞前,以合併為關係副詞,依其所修飾的先行詞而變化,成為由關係副詞所帶領的關係子句,以修飾先行詞。

 

  1.介詞係由動詞片語而來,即關係代名詞係關係子句中的受詞,此介詞不可省略

 

        米飯是中國人賴以為生的主食

    Rice the main food which Chinese live on.

         Rice the main food on which Chinese live.

         Rice the main food what Chinese live. (關係副詞what = on which)

         Rice is what Chinese live on. (關係代名詞whaton附屬live不可省略)

 

        阿里山是許多中國人渴望前往的地方

    Mount Ali is the place which many Chinese are eager for.

         Mount Ali is the place for which many Chinese are eager.

         Mount Ali is the place where many Chinese are eager.

         (關係副詞 where = for which)

 

         Mount Ali is where many Chinese desire for.

        (關係代名詞 wherefor 附屬 be eager 不可省略)

 

  2.介詞係由副詞片語而來,即關係代名詞係關係子句中介詞片語中的受詞,此介詞須隨先行詞的合併而省略。

 

        Taiwan is the place which I was born in.----------------台灣是我出生的地方

        Taiwan is the place in which I was born.

        Taiwan is the place where I was born. (關係副詞where = in which)

        Taiwan is where I was born (in).(關係代名詞where = the place which)

 

 由直述句I was born in Taiwan.即知,介詞in附屬於the place,而非was born

 

        1960 is the year which I was born in. ----------------1960乃吾人出生之年也

   = 1960 is the year in which I was born.

      = 1960 is the year when I was born. (關係副詞when = in which)

      = 1960 is when I was born (in). (關係代名詞when= the year which)

 

       That is the reason which I came here for.---------那便是我趕來此地的理由

   = That is the reason for which I came here.

      = That is the reason why I came here. (關係副詞why = for which)

      = That is what I came here for. (關係代名詞what = the reason which)

      = That is why I came here. ( for what = why )

 

(國中英文 代名詞練習範例)

(以下內容,國中生可以不用看,國中生的  下一頁  )

 

 

進階觀念 關係代名詞與關係副詞:how much

   牛頓對整個世界影響的範疇實難估算

             The extent which Newton has affected the world to could not be calculated.

             The extent to which Newton has affected the world could not be calculated.

             The extent how much Newton has affected the world could not be calculated.

              How much Newton has affected the world could not be calculated.

 

What做為連接詞的用法:A is to B what C is to D A對於B如同C對於D

  求知之於智力如同飲食之於養生

   Reading is to the mind what food is to the body.

 

     忠貞之於愛情如同義氣之於友情

       What faith is to the love, obligation is to the friendship.

 

 

關係副詞thethe比較級,the比較級

 

             【觀念確認】第一個the為關係副詞,第二個the為指示副詞,這兩個成對的副詞僅能和比較級連用。(納氏英文法 Nesfield’s  P.159)

 

The more you have, the more you want.---------------------人心不足,蛇吞象

The older we grow, the more dishonest we become.------老而不死,是謂賊

The sooner you learn (English), the sooner you earn (money).-----早學早賺

 

複合關係代名詞

 

  whoever = no matter who = anyone who

  whomever = no matter whom = anyone whom

  whichever = no matter which = anyone which

  whatever = no matter what = anything which

  wherever = no matter where = any place which

  whenever = no matter when = any time which

 

用來引導作為主詞或受詞的名詞子句

 

我不相信你說的任何話

I don’t believe whatever you say.

I don’t believe no matter what you say.

I don’t believe anything which you say.

 

    無論是誰這麼說,誰就是騙子

Whoever may say so is a liar.

No matter who may say so is a liar.

Anyone who may say so is a liar.

 

    用來引導作為主要子句的副詞子句

 

  無論你去哪裡,我定追隨你

Wherever you go, I’ll follow you.

No matter where you go, I’ll follow you.

Anywhere you go, I’ll follow you.

Any place that you go, I’ll follow you.

 

  無論你什麼時候來,我都歡迎你

Whenever you come, you will be always welcome.

No matter when you come, you will be always welcome.

Anywhen you come, you will be always welcome.

Any time that you come, you will be always welcome.

 

詳參 副詞 之關係副詞

 

 

關係代名詞:本為從屬連接詞,卻有修飾先行詞的作用。

 

     As如同

        這和我遺失的鋼筆一模一樣

        This is the same fountain pen as I lost. (準關係代名詞不同一物)

 

        這就是我遺失的那支鋼筆

        This is the same fountain pen that I lost. (關係代名詞同一物)

 

        如世人所知(的事),馬克吐溫乃知名美國作家

        As is known to the world, Mark Twin is a famous American.  (準關係代名詞修飾整句)      

       = Mark Twin is a famous American, as (it) is known to the world. (若句中有(it)as為對等連接詞接續整句)(more information)

 

有關 As 所有用法看這裡

 

     But而不

        沒有不愛子女的母親

    There are no mothers but love their children.

 

        莫以惡小而為之

        There is no vice so simple, but may become serious.

 

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