代名詞(24)--關係代名詞：what, where, when, why
關係代名詞：what, where, when, why = 先行詞+ which
【觀念確認】關係代名詞 which 可合併先行詞，依其所修飾的先行詞而變化，而構成完整的名詞子句，成為主要子句的一部分，從另一方面來說，關係子句本身已轉變成為間接問句。
What = the thing which Where = the place which
When = the time which Why = the reason which
Can you tell me ________ you are going to?
Can you tell me the place to ________you are going?
I believe the thing which he said.---------------------我相信他所說的事(的話)
I believe what he said.
This is the museum which I last visited.-------這是我上次來過的博物館(地方)
This is where I last visited.
I don’t know the time which he’ll come.-----------我不知他到達的時間(何時)
I don’t know when he’ll come.
That’s the reason which I came here for.----------那就是我來此的理由(為何)
That’s why I came here.
( for附屬於the reason，所以隨著 the reason消失而消失)
You are the one who I am looking for.--------------------你就是我正要找的人
You are who I am looking for.
The man who you are talking about is my father.----------你說的那人正是家父
Who you are talking about is my father.
代名詞(25)--關係副詞：what, where, when, why，兼論準關代 as , but
關係副詞：what, where, when, why = 介繫詞+ which
Rice the main food which Chinese live on.
Rice the main food on which Chinese live.
Rice the main food what Chinese live. (關係副詞what = on which)
Rice is what Chinese live on. (關係代名詞what，on附屬live不可省略)
Mount Ali is the place which many Chinese are eager for.
Mount Ali is the place for which many Chinese are eager.
Mount Ali is the place where many Chinese are eager.
(關係副詞 where = for which)
Mount Ali is where many Chinese desire for.
(關係代名詞 where，for 附屬 be eager 不可省略)
Taiwan is the place which I was born in.----------------台灣是我出生的地方
Taiwan is the place in which I was born.
Taiwan is the place where I was born. (關係副詞where = in which)
Taiwan is where I was born (in).(關係代名詞where = the place which)
由直述句I was born in Taiwan.即知，介詞in附屬於the place，而非was born
1960 is the year which I was born in. ----------------1960乃吾人出生之年也
= 1960 is the year in which I was born.
= 1960 is the year when I was born. (關係副詞when = in which)
= 1960 is when I was born (in). (關係代名詞when= the year which)
That is the reason which I came here for.---------那便是我趕來此地的理由
= That is the reason for which I came here.
= That is the reason why I came here. (關係副詞why = for which)
= That is what I came here for. (關係代名詞what = the reason which)
= That is why I came here. ( for what = why )
(以下內容，國中生可以不用看，國中生的 下一頁 )
The extent which Newton has affected the world to could not be calculated.
The extent to which Newton has affected the world could not be calculated.
The extent how much Newton has affected the world could not be calculated.
How much Newton has affected the world could not be calculated.
What做為連接詞的用法：A is to B what C is to D 〔A對於B如同C對於D〕
Reading is to the mind what food is to the body.
What faith is to the love, obligation is to the friendship.
【觀念確認】第一個the為關係副詞，第二個the為指示副詞，這兩個成對的副詞僅能和比較級連用。(納氏英文法 Nesfield’s P.159)
The more you have, the more you want.---------------------人心不足，蛇吞象
The older we grow, the more dishonest we become.------老而不死，是謂賊
The sooner you learn (English), the sooner you earn (money).-----早學早賺
whoever = no matter who = anyone who
whomever = no matter whom = anyone whom
whichever = no matter which = anyone which
whatever = no matter what = anything which
wherever = no matter where = any place which
whenever = no matter when = any time which
I don’t believe whatever you say.
I don’t believe no matter what you say.
I don’t believe anything which you say.
Whoever may say so is a liar.
No matter who may say so is a liar.
Anyone who may say so is a liar.
Wherever you go, I’ll follow you.
No matter where you go, I’ll follow you.
Anywhere you go, I’ll follow you.
Any place that you go, I’ll follow you.
Whenever you come, you will be always welcome.
No matter when you come, you will be always welcome.
Anywhen you come, you will be always welcome.
Any time that you come, you will be always welcome.
詳參 副詞 之關係副詞
This is the same fountain pen as I lost. (準關係代名詞…不同一物)
This is the same fountain pen that I lost. (關係代名詞…同一物)
As is known to the world, Mark Twin is a famous American. (準關係代名詞…修飾整句)
= Mark Twin is a famous American, as (it) is known to the world. (若句中有(it)則as為對等連接詞…接續整句)(more information)
There are no mothers but love their children.
There is no vice so simple, but may become serious.